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Updated: Mar 18, 2022

#1. The ageing of our skin is accelerated when exposed to the harmful ultraviolet light emitted by the sun. Even on an overcast day, as much as 80% of the sun's age-accelerating UVA light can penetrate into the skin. Therefore, the daily use of a skincare product with an SPF of at least 15 is highly recommended.

#2. Sweat and sebum combine on the skin's surface to form a slightly acidic film with a pH of 5.5 to 5.6. This is known as the acid mantle, and its purpose is to prevent the loss of moisture and discourage the growth of bacteria and fungi. If alkaline products such as soaps and harsh cleansers (with a pH higher than 7) are used excessively, the acid mantle will be disturbed resulting in irritation and sensitivity. Therefore, for healthy skin and to avoid irritation, a gentle cleanser that preserves the acid mantle while removing make-up and impurities should be used.

#3. Did you know that the acid mantle of the skin provides it with natural waterproof properties - its natural oil (sebum) prevents the skin from losing water from the skin tissues and from dehydration. However, it doesn't completely prevent water loss - approximately 500 ml of water can be lost through evaporation every day. Therefore, drinking at least six to eight glasses of water a day keeps the moisture levels high, an important factor in cell renewal and skin hydration to prevent wrinkle formation. It also helps to detoxify and remove waste.

#4. What is SPF? Sunburn protection factor or SPF is a guide to the effectiveness of a sunscreen in screening out UVB light (burning rays) and the number that follows it tells you how much UVB light a sunscreen can filter out. Science points out that SPF of 15 can filter out 93% of the UVB light and SPF of 30 can filter out 97% of the UVB light. No sunscreen can filter 100% of the UVB light, therefore it is important to wear an additional protection like clothing and seek the shade.

#5. What is broad spectrum sunscreen? This is the sunscreen that can protect you from both UVA light (ageing rays) and UVB light (burning rays). The broad spectrum sunscreen helps to prevent skin cancer, sunburn and premature ageing of the skin, including the appearance of coarse wrinkles, pigmented spots, dryness, loss of elasticity and broken capillaries.

#6. There are two types of skin ageing: Intrinsic ageing that is due to factors like genetics and age. Intrinsic ageing is characterised by the decline of biological functions of the body, a decrease in adaptation to stress and damage to the skin caused by free radicals. Extrinsic ageing or photoageing is primarily due to sun exposure and partly to other lifestyle and environmental factors such as smoking, air pollution. Photoaged skin is characterised by coarse wrinkles, loss of elasticity, pigmented spots. Recent advances in understanding the skin ageing processes prove crucial in developing strategies for prevention, slowing down the skin ageing and rejuvenation of the photoaged skin.

#7. Free radicals and why they are harmful to our skin? Free radicals are molecules containing oxygen with one or more unpaired electrons that make free radicals very unstable and prone to react with other molecules. In order to become stable, free radicals are looking to steal one or more electrons from other molecules which leads to a chain of undesirable chemical reactions in the skin cells. These undesirable chemical reactions are also called oxidative stress and leave the skin cells damaged and unable to function properly. Antioxidants are molecules that can give away unpaired electrons to free radicals, thus stabilising the free radicals and preventing skin cells' damage and degeneration. Therefore, it is extremely important to ensure that your diet and skincare regimen contain plenty of potent anti-oxidants.

#8. DRY SKIN type is characterised by the following: • Fine and tight pores • Skin appearance is dull • Skin texture is thin and often with flaky patches • Feels tight after washing/cleansing • Not enough sebaceous activity/oil production • Poor moisture content • Uneven skin pigmentation • Premature fine lines around the eyes, mouth and neck • Sensitivity tendency. Broken capillaries may appear.

#9. NORMAL SKIN type is characterised by the following: • Small or medium pores • Good moisture level • Skin texture is even, neither too thick nor too thin • Healthy colour • Good elasticity, especially when young • Skin feels firm to the touch • Even tone without skin pigmentation • No blemishes or occasional ones

#10. OILY SKIN type is characterised by the following:

• Medium large to large pores

• High moisture level

• Skin texture is coarse and thick

• Skin colour is sallow with sluggish blood and lymph circulation

• Skin tone is good

• Skin is prone to shininess due to the excess oil production

• Uneven tone and skin pigmentation may be present

• Comedones, papules, pustules may be present

#11. COMBINATION SKIN type is party oily and partly dry. It is usually oily in the T-zone (forehead, nose and chin) and dry on the cheeks. COMBINATION SKIN type is characterised by the following:

• Enlarged pores in the T-zone (chin, nose and forehead) while in the cheek area pores are small to medium

• High moisture content in the oily area and poor moisture content in the dry areas

• Skin texture is coarse and thick in the oily areas and thin with flaky patches in the dry areas

• Skin colour is sallow in the oily areas, but shows sensitivity in the dry areas

• Skin tone is good in the oily areas, but poor in the dry areas

• Skin is prone to shininess in the T-zone due to the excess oil production

• Uneven tone and skin pigmentations may be present • Comedones, papules, pustules may be present in the T-zone • Broken capillaries and sensitivity may be present in the dry areas

#12. Benefits of facial massage: The appropriate facial massage movements performed by a professional therapist increase the blood supply to the skin tissues and underlying muscles increasing the inflow of nutrients and oxygen and thus stimulating collagen production. At the same time, the lymphatic circulation is improved that in turn facilitates the removal of waste products and toxins accumulated in the skin tissues. Massage movements have a stimulating or relaxing effect on nerves. If performed regularly, facial massage is a powerful form of anti-ageing therapy that ensures healthy and radiant complexion.

#13. Did you know that: The skin is the largest body organ and it accounts for one-eighth of the total body's weight and it measures approximately 1.5 sq.m. The skin is the thinnest on the eyelids (0.05mm) and thickest on the soles of the feet (approximately 5mm).

#14. The skin is composed of three basic layers: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer. The epidermis is forming the outer skin that we can see and touch and it is the most significant skin layer with regard to the application of skincare products that affect its appearance. The basic function of a moisturiser applied to the skin is to restore and/or maintain its barrier function to reduce moisture loss.

#15. Sebaceous glands, responsible for the secretion of sebum, are not present on the surface of the lips. That is why lips are prone to become dry and chapped, especially if exposed to sun, wind or cold temperatures. For this reason, lips should be regularly protected with a lip emollient preparation with SPF.

#16. What is the difference between dry and dehydrated skin? Dry skin is generally lacking natural oil also known as sebum that together with sweat forms the skin barrier that prevents the loss of moisture and discourages the growth of bacteria or fungi. Lack of natural oil can be hereditary or can be caused by environmental factors having a drying effect on the skin such as sun exposure, wind or cold temperatures, air-conditioning, lifestyle habits such as smoking, regular alcohol intake and lack of sleep, using harsh soaps or cleansers etc. Dehydrated skin is often mistaken for dry skin as many of the characteristics are the same. However, dehydrated skin is generally lacking water rather than sebum. Hydrating not only topically, but also internally is crucial for replenishing the moisture of the skin and pumping out the noticeable fine lines due to dehydration. Ensure that you drink at least six to eight cups of water, have a diet rich in water heavy fruit and vegetables like watermelon and cucumbers and use the correct skincare products suitable for dehydrated skin like milky cleansers and light oisturisers.

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